The New Rhetoric: A Treatise on Argumentation


“The use of argumentation implies that one has renounced resorting to force alone, that value is attached to gaining the adherence of one’s interlocutor by means of reasoned persuasion, and that one is not regarding him [or her] as an object, but appealing to his [or hers] free judgment. Recourse to argumentation assumes the establishment of a community of minds, which, while it lasts, excludes the use of violence.”

(Ch. Perelman and L. Olbrechts-Tyteca, “The New Rhetoric: A Treatise on Argumentation,” 55).

Harmonious Distribution aka Perfection

Today i was thinking about language and music, and i thought that which music is or can be regarded the best music in the world?

In my mind, the one that approaches perfect harmony. But what harmony? Harmonious in what sense? Well, in maths harmony is achieved when x=0, But, when does x=0?. In maths we have the odd and the even numbers, 1 is odd, 2 is even. The first 4 numbers 1+2+3+4=10, which according to Pythagoras it is the perfectly harmonious number. Also observe that in order to reach to the perfect number, the number 10, 2 odd and 2 even numbers are used.

2 odd and 2 even, this i can say is rather interesting. Also the first 10 numbers, which happen to be the basis for all the rest, follow a harmonious distribution, 5 odds and 5 evens make up the whole system. So, Harmony is achieved when x=0, Well, as you have guessed already 5-5=0 In other words we can say that 5 odd and 5 even numbers create all this harmonious system.

One can reflect on that for hours and create various syllogisms, but i just thought, in language which letters represent the odd and which represent the even. How can a language be perfectly harmonious? I would assume that odd are the consonants and even the vowels, don’t know why, but this is how i would classify them. Now, how can a language achieve perfection? Probably, the same way that maths achieve perfection(Number 10 or 0), by using an equal amount of odds and evens. In other words, by using an equal amount of vowels and consonants. I will just baptize it in order to use the term for future reference in the blog or elsewhere: to the Relative Perfection Ratio ω = x/y , where x the amount of vowels, y the amount of consonants and ω represents the Harmonious Distribution of sounds of any given alphabet. When ω= 1, we can say that the Language is perfect. Or when ω1 > ω2, then ω1 is a relatively more perfect language than ω2.

But, lets put that into practice, i will examine the ones that i am more familiar with, the English representing the Latin ω1, and the Greek ω2. Bear in mind, that i will use only the unique letters of the alphabet, i will not include the diphthongs in this particular case, in order to keep it simple. Also, this examination takes place by 2 languages of the same Parent Group, the Greek, in which the alphabet contains vowels. But what happens when we compare it with the Pro-Canaanite Language group, from which Hebrew is derived from, a group which is vowel less. Hm, this is tricky, but i guess that even though vowels are absent from the group in their writing system, they are not absent from the phonetic system, and therefore these, can be taken into account, the a, the e, the i, the o and the u, which are universal phonetic sounds. Or maybe the whole Hypothesis, of the vowels representing the even numbers and the consonants respectively the odd numbers could be flawed, and the separation, can take place some how else. Maybe, but lets see what happens, in my Hypothesis.

The English(Latin) Alphabet is composed of 26 letters, good by now, the number is even just like 10, and it is possible that it can could be formed by 13 vowels and 13 consonants. But is it?

Last time, i checked 6 were the vowels and 20 the consonants, so according to my theory, this language can never achieve the perfection that the math language can.

Therefore,

ω1=x/y<->
ω1=6/20<->

ω1=0.3

What about the Greek?

The Greek alphabet is composed by 24 letters, 7 vowels and 17 consonants.

Hence,

ω2=x/y<->
ω2=7/17<->

ω2=0.41176711~

Conclusions

In words, the Greek Language cannot be perfect either. But what do we conclude from this? First of all ω1 < ω2, which means that ω2(Greek) is relatively more perfect, with a more Harmonious Distribution. Secondly, why does the ω2 equals to an indefinite number? Does it mean something? Propably. And also, maybe this Relative Perfection Ratio explains our “original sin”, our imperfection, our calculating inabilities compared with calculators? Our never Harmonious programming languages, could be the root of the cause.

I will come back to this. Thank you for your time.

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Do you believe? – A Higher Energy..

I have been asked this question so many times that i have actually lost counting. This question and the answer accompanied by, is usually ” Are you affiliated with a certain religion?” And if not, then you got to be an “atheist”.

Well, that’s not true. Not true at all.

Bottom line, why should i bow to Savaoth, Yahweh, Allah, Zeus, Buddha or whatever in order to prove to my interlocutor that i believe in a Higher Energy? Why should i accept the definition given to this Higher Energy by other individuals or organizations?

But if i don’t, i am automatically either an atheist or an agnosticist?

Is that which degree exactly of stereotyping, or what?

But what is belief? What is faith? Is faith that which religious organizations believe that it is?

Why? 1)Because of their volumes follower’s? 2)Because of their History? Or 3)because of the energy retransmitted by them through the Concentration of their subjects?

“The faith of many people to something does not guarantee its truthfulness”, even the Ugly Socrates 2500 years ago observed the blindness of the mass.
In other words, as far as i am concerned, Scientific method alone, is allowed to perform such statements of True or False. And their history, is worst than Mao Ce Tung’s China….

But what about box no3? That’s a tricky one isn’t it?

According to this line of thought, the more followers one has, the more influential is in the Divine domain, since the followers in their own way, create through their faith a Light in the Darkness. Not because of their affiliations but through the power of their meditative minds.

So, here we have another relationship similar to the State-Citizen relationship, everything the citizens do, the government takes credit for. And it should, since it provides a competitive framework for its subjects to elaborate in.

So, maybe i should choose a religion and fast for that matter?

But wait a second, since when did “pure energy” become a tradable commodity which can be concentrated and retransmitted?

I guess we should have to wait until science answers David Chalmers Hard Problem.

Until then, take your chances, and i shall take mine.

Toodaloo.

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Chaos

As promised, in this session we shall examine the term Chaos.

What do we mean when we say that a situation is chaotic? Incontrollable crisis? Abstract movement? Unpredictability? Disorder? Assymetry? Just like the Image suggests?

Let us see,

Chaos in mathematics means an aperiodic deterministic behavior which is very sensitive to its initial conditions, i.e., infinitesimal perturbations of boundary conditions for a chaotic dynamic system originate finite variations of the orbit in the phase space. Chaos in physics is often considered analogous to thermodynamic entropy. Chaos is a poetic or metaphysical concept evoking a sense of discord, whereas entropy is a concretely defined function of a physical system. See entropy for the mathematical quantification of the disorder in a system. Physical chaos might be conceived as utter confusion, an incomprehensible and heterogeneous mess. This intuitive notion is at odds with the famous Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy cannot decrease in a closed system. Maximized entropy always corresponds to apparent homogeneity in a system.
Chaos Theory describes the behavior of certain nonlinear dynamical systems that under certain conditions exhibit a phenomenon known as chaos. Among the characteristics of chaotic systems, described below, is sensitivity to initial conditions (popularly referred to as the butterfly effect).

But what all that scientific gibberish mean?

In a few words, Chaos is the condition where asymmetry is symmetrical and harmonious. If one could draw a picture of Chaos it would look like something like the above.

According to Hesiod, Orpheus, Heraclitus, Socrates, Aristotle, etcetera; Chaos is the primal nothingness from which everything came to being.

It is the eternal womb where matter and non-matter exist in perfect harmony.

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Hesiod Cosmogony

Eternal knowledge or just a poem?

Below are the first verses of Hesiod’s cosmogony.

“First of all, Chaos (The Void), next broad-bosomed Gaia (Space), the solid and eternal home of all, and Eros (Desire-Magnetism), the most beautiful of the immortal gods, who in every man and every god softens the sinews and overpowers the prudent purpose of the mind. Out of Chaos came Erevos (Dark Matter) and Black Nyx (Black Night), and out of Night came Aither (Cosmic Radiance) and Hemera (Day-Light), her children conceived after union in love with Erevos (Dark Matter). Gaia-broad(Space) first produced Uranus (Starry Sky/Matter), equal in size with herself, to cover her on all sides. Next she produced the tall mountains, the pleasant haunts of the gods, and also gave birth to the barren waters, sea with its raging surges-all this without the passion of love. Thereafter she lay with Sky and gave birth to Ocean with its deep current. Coeus and Crius and Hyperion and Iapetus; Thea and Rhea and Themia [Law] and Mnemosyne [Memory]; also golden-crowned Phoebe and lovely Tethys. After these came cunning Cronus(Time), the youngest and boldest of her children; and he grew to hate the father who had begotten him.”

So, at first according to Hesiod we have Chaos the void. And then Gaia the broad which represents Space.

Afterwards, came Eros the force that resembles magnetism, the force that binds everything together.

To follow was Erevos which is the Darkness(Dark Matter) and Black Nyx the Black Night.

Black Night and Erevos united through Eros and created , Day-light (hemera) and Cosmic Radiance(Aither).

Gaia-broad (Space) gave birth to the Starry Sky(Matter) which is equal to her in size so that he can cover her from any given point.

And last came Kronos (time) from the Sky (the creator of all living things); Kronos the one who hates his father and fights him. Representing the eternal fight between matter and time, which brings age and death.

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Now, let us examine the current Big Bang theory, which is the prevailing theory of our civilization.

In the beginning there was Void (Chaos), which contained according to scientists space, time and every single forces.

Note Eros’s nickname by Hesiod, ekriksigenis=the blowing up one(bang).

Big Bang theory is like a Balloon that fills up constantly.

Now, then came Space (Gaia-broad), in the first miliseconds of Space, everything was concentrated in Dark Matter (Erevos).

Afterwards, quarks started being created in a form that resembles Black Nyx (Black Night), since Light was non-existant, yet.

With the fusion of quarks the first cosmic radiance appeared (Aither) and this cosmic radiance created Light (Hemera).

Cooling of from the expansion of Space(Gaia broad), the quarks created the Matter, the Starry Sky(Uranus), the creator of all living things.

As soon as Matter was created, time (Kronos) started counting against his father(Uranus=matter).

—————————————————————————–

So, dear Readers? Is Hesiod’s Cosmogony just another poem?

In our next session we shall examine the definition of “Chaos” and “Poem”.

Thank you for reading.

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Eros-Part I

Hello, dear Public i shall make my entrance in the blogging domain with a purely noemonful paradigm to illustrate…….!

I will translate for you dear Readers in my own words, a passage from the Symposium of Plato.

Symposium means Party in Hellenic and almost 2500 years ago, Agathon had a party to celebrate his victory in an Athenian competition called Linaia Games.

He invited Plato, Socrates, Aristophanes the Great Comedian, Alkiviades the Athenian governor, was there and some other less important figures.

They sat down and they decided to discuss about Eros, or Love, their rule was that only one speaks at a time with a clockwise rotation according to where seated.

I will skip most of their speeches which most of them are idiotic and useless and i will go down to the juice, to Socrates. Just to add, when Plato’s turn came to speak, he said: “sorry, am not really up for it today, to speak about love, please allow me to comment and criticize the ones that have already spoken” And so he did, so Plato actually didn’t say how he perceives Love, and how he defines Love.

However, Plato is the one that afterwards he went home, he wrote every single thing down, even the thoughts he made in his mind while the others were talking.

So to cut to the chase, Socrates is speaking, but he is using a story to tell his beliefs. He says to everybody:

“Once upon a time i met a woman called Diotima, she was very wise, so wise she even stopped a plague from coming to Athens with various medicine and prayers to our Gods. I used to believe that Eros was a Great God, beautiful and powerful but she proved me wrong the same way that i proved wrong our host, Agathon”

So here it goes:

S: “What are you saying Diotima is Eros ugly and evil?”
D: “Why are you blaspheming Socrates, who told you that what is not beautiful and good is necessarily ugly and evil?”
S: “But of course it is”
D: “Oh, my poor man, and everything that is not wise is necessarily idiotic? Dont you know that there is something in between wisdom and stupidity?”
S: “And what is this something?”
D: “This something is for someone to have a true opinion without being able to prove it, of course this is not a science because it lacks the proof, however it is not stupidity either cause it manages to reach to the essence of matter. A valid opinion is something that exists between wisdom and amathy.”
S: “You ‘re right”
D: “So, didn’t you say that something that is not beautiful is necessarily ugly and also something that is not good is necessarily evil. As you can see, this doesn’t apply everywhere. Same goes for Eros.”
S: “However, Diotima you have to admit that he is recognized by everyone as a God and a Great one for that matter.”
D: “Who is everyone Socrates? The ones that know? Or the ones that they don’t?”
S: “Everybody irrespectively”
[Then she smiled and said]:
D: The faith of many people to a particular thing does not guarantee its truthfulness. And also, Socrates, how do you say that he is recognized as a Great God when the same people claim that he is not a God at all?”
S: “But who is those people that say so?”
D: ” Well I am and YOU ARE
S: “How did you manage to gather that?”
D: “Oh, its very easy. Answer me: didn’t you admit that all the gods are happy and beautifully? Or do you dare to say that even one of them is not?”
S: “Of course i do not dare, To Zeus, never.”
D: “But a while ago, you claimed that Eros craves the the good and beautiful, if he craves them, then that means that he does not posses them…Did you or did you not say so?”
S: “Well, yes i did”
D: “So how can he be a God, when he lacks the beauty and goodness?”
S: “Well yes, ok you do have a point”
D: So, do you see that even yourself claims that Eros is not a God?”
S: Diotima, am about to go mental, Tell me then what is he? Is he mortal? Tell me…”
D: “Of course not”
S: “Then?”
D: “As we already illustrated with the previous examples, Socrates, he is something in between a God and a mortal”
S: “Tell me what is Eros?, cause am about to blow up!”
D: “DAEMON Socrates, he is a daemon, Aren’t Daemons somewhere in between the mortals and the gods?”
S: “And what is a daemon Diotima? What is their task? Their purpose?”
D: “Their purpose is similar to that of Hermes and Charon, to transfer and translate messages from Gods to Mortals and prayers of Mortals to the Gods. The race of the Daemons, is the link between the divine and the human, it is the ones that keep the universe together, the ones that bind everything together, the cosmic glue. Man cannot approach god, so the daemons are appointed for this task. This communication takes place while we are awake and also while we are asleep. And whoever knows how to translate this communication is wise and daemonic, such are the poets, the lawmakers, the philosophers, the prophets, and the inventors.” So, these daemons are plenty, however their King, their Ruler is Eros, i would say”.
S: “So, Diotima, and who are the parents of Eros? Where did he come from?”
D: “Oh this is a great story, and i will narrate it to you…..”

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I will narrate it to you dear Readers another time……this is enough for the time being.

I hope that you shall enjoy this short dialectical argument, which more or less, is where our Western Civilization is derived from.

This is one of the finest examples of the dialectical arguments. This speech took place in Athens in the year 416 B.C., Month is January (Gamelion) in the House of Agathon.

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